The number of brother x sister inbreeding generations can be indicated, if necessary, by addition in parentheses of F followed by the number of generations. They were developed using a funnel breeding scheme to include all eight progenitor strains in three outbreeding generations, followed by consecutive generations of brother x sister matings (Threadgill and Churchill 2012, Collaborative Cross Consortium 2012). http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/submissions/amsp_submission.cgi. For outbreds, the common strain root is preceded by the Laboratory Code of the institution holding the stock. are offspring of a (DBA/2 x AKR/J)F1 male backcrossed to a C57BL/6J female. Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. ancestor, it is likely that genetic variation between the branches will have The term has no official ranking status in botany; the term refers to the collective descendants produced from a common ancestor that share a uniform morphological or physiological character. inbreeding there still will be enough residual heterozygosity that two Members of the HXB set of rat RI strains derived from a cross of SHR/OlaIpcv x BN-. However, no mouse of the developed strain or details of its production information was available. A strain with the nuclear genome of C57BL/6J and the cytoplasmic (mitochondrial) genome of BALB/c. Such F1s are called recombinant inbred intercrosses (RIX) and are symbolized Various specific strains have been developed, including a flightless version with stunted wings (also used in the pet trade as live food for small reptiles and amphibians). number included in the symbol following a hyphen. [4] This has become a valuable tool to analyze the microbiome. purposes as genetically identical. It has been said that "there is no universally accepted definition for the terms 'strain', 'variant', and 'isolate' in the virology community, and most virologists simply copy the usage of terms from others".[2]. regarded as coisogenic, but the possibility of mutations elsewhere should be considered. In short, repetitive strain injury describes a number of conditions which involve pain in the arm or hand caused by repetitive activity - such as typing on a keyboard or clicking with a mouse. Because speed congenics depend upon thorough marker analysis and can vary by particular experimental protocol, the inbred status of speed congenics should be regarded with caution. If there is not information as to the total number of generations, but a minimum number of recent (Note that historical exceptions to this rule exist; for example, in mouse, BALB/c is not a Traditionally, recombinant inbred (RI) strains are formed by crossing animals of two inbred strains, followed by 20 or more consecutive generations of brother x sister matings (Bailey 1971, Taylor 1978). New viral strains can be created due to mutation or swapping of genetic components when two or more viruses infect the same cell in nature. While funding for such research has aroused controversy at times due to safety concerns, leading to a temporary pause, it has subsequently proceeded. For example, a "flu strain" is a certain biological form of the influenza or "flu" virus. If the strains involved have a donor/host relationship, the strain designation preceding the first semicolon should be the host and the final strain following the semicolon(s) the donor, specifically for targeted mutations where the donor is the ES cell line. If several lines derived from the same host background and donor strains and carrying the same differential allele(s) are available, the individual lines should be distinguished by adding a forward slash followed by serial numbers and Laboratory codes. Substrain of A mouse strain originating from Walter Heston. any publication when the hybrids or crosses are first referred to. The NIH Swiss outbred stock maintained by Harlan Sprague Dawley, Inc. Microbial strains can also be differentiated by their genetic makeup using metagenomic methods to maximize resolution within species. The ICR outbred stock maintained by Taconic Farms, Inc. The naming of these cell lines should follow the convention provided below, which encapsulates the strain designation, ES Cell (or iPS cell) serial number and LabCode: The format for the ES cell line should be:    Strain-ES#/Labcode, For iPS cells, the ES# would be replaced by the corresponding iPS number in the format: Consomic strains are produced by repeated backcrossing of a whole chromosome onto an inbred strain. followed by a colon, the two inbred strain abbreviations, separated by a comma, with the generation Experience shows that on occasion it is impossible to transfer an entire chromosome from one strain to another due to lethal effects on a particular chromosome. A given inbred rodent population is considered genetically identical after 20 generations of sibling-mating. All members of RI sets involving the same two strains will be serially numbered regardless of whether they were created in one or more laboratories. It has remained a popular model organism for many other reasons, like the ease of its breeding and maintenance, and the speed and volume of its reproduction. A strain is a genetic variant or subtype of a microorganism (e.g., a virus, bacterium or fungus). with the first non-sib cross after the F2 generation. A congenic strain made by introducing into C57BL/6J a segment of chromosome 4 from an outbred or mixed strain (=Cg), extending between the two defined markers. A transgenic mouse strain expressing four drug-selectable marker genes. This mouse strain segregates for the tyrosinase alleles albino (, This mouse strain segregates for the dominant white spotting allele of the kit oncogene (. About this page. For example, when backcrossing a recessive gene onto an inbred background, after 10 rounds of backcrossing and intercrossing to recover a homozygote for the next backcross (20 generations), the strain would be at NE10. Multiple, mixed or unknown additional contributions are indicated by the symbol Cg in parentheses. As an example, some rice strains are made by inserting new genetic material into a rice plant,[13] all the descendants of the genetically modified rice plant are a strain with unique genetic information that is passed on to later generations; the strain designation, which is normally a number or a formal name, covers all the plants that descend from the originally modified plant. A targeted mutation created in a 129 ES cell line and transferred from a B6;129P mixed background to BALB/c. RI strains should be designated by uppercase one- or two-letter abbreviations of both parental strain names, with the female strain written first, and separated by an uppercase letter X with no intervening spaces. These flu strains are characterized by their differing isoforms of surface proteins. or Laboratory code, which is a code of usually three to four letters (first letter Definition An inbred strain of mouse that contains a small genetic region (ideally a single gene ) from another strain, but which is otherwise identical to the original inbred strain. Recombinant Congenic (RC) Strains are formed by crossing two inbred strains, followed by a few (usually two) backcrosses of the hybrids to one of the parental strains (the "recipient" strain), with subsequent inbreeding without selection for any specific markers (Demant and Hart, 1986). Inbred Mouse Strains (n.) 1. They are developed by inbreeding (usually brother x sister mating) but with heterozygosity selected at each generation. A similar congenic strain in which the donor chromosomal segment comes from the CBA/J strain. to, and maintained, on the same inbred substrain from which the ES cells were derived can be Once such a mutant stock achieves inbred status, it should be given the appropriate strain designation. Collaborative Cross strains are designated by CC, followed by a 4-digit number, a forward slash, and the laboratory code for the institution at which they were bred. Although consomic strains are similar in concept and development to congenic strains, in An F1 between a female BXD1/Ty and a male AXB19/Pgn. have only 0.01 residual heterozygosity (excluding any genetic drift) and can be regarded for most Advanced intercross lines (AIL) are made by producing an F2 generation between two inbred strains To designate "sections" of transferred chromosomes that contribute to a consomic set, regions can be indicated as a decimal 1, 2, 3, etc. Meaning of animals, outbred strains. In cases where the chromosome on which the mutation arose is unknown, e.g., the donor is not inbred or is complex or an F1 hybrid, the symbol Cg should be used to denote this complex genetic origin. distinguishable. background carrying the Robertsonian translocation Rb(16.17)5Bnr. Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at generations, and individuals of the strain can be traced to a single ancestral pair at the Ideally, descriptions of speed congenic strains in first publications thereof should include the number and genomic spacing of markers used to define the congenicity of the strain. Details of inbred strain genotypes are available in publications and databases. (Note that the amount of donor genome linked to the selected gene or marker is reduced at a much slower rate, approximately equivalent to 200/N, where N is the number of backcross generations for N>5 (Flaherty 1981; Silver 1995). [8] Escherichia coli is most common species for prokaryotic strain engineering. (Note that some pre-existing strains do not follow As with congenic strains, a minimum of A congenic strain involving an alloantigenic system should be designated by the name of the inbred background strain, either a hyphen and the differential locus or a period and an abbreviation of the differential locus, the name of the donor strain enclosed in parentheses, a slash, and the laboratory code of the strain's developer (e.g., BN- RT1 c (AUG)/Pit or BN.1C(AUG)/Pit). Mouse strain generation numbers provide additional information on the genetic background and breeding history of mouse strains that cannot be captured in the mouse strain names. Because the change in strain name is optional, though strongly recommended, some strains designated as STOCK may be inbred. A mutant strain, incipient or inbred, derived from more than three progenitor strains or having genetic contribution from an unknown source is considered a "mixed" inbred and may be designated as STOCK followed by a space (i.e., no hyphen) and the mutation(s) or chromosome anomaly it carries. uppercase, followed by all lowercase) that identifies a particular institute, They are useful for experimentation where genotype is unimportant and where a random genetic population is desired. Production of inbred Estimates suggest ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke each accounted for greater than three million deaths worldwide in 2013, making cerebrovascular disease the third leading cause of death in the world (Roth et al., 2015). occurred by mutation and genetic drift. musculus domesticus. Many rodent strains have been developed for a variety of disease models, and they are also often used to test drug toxicity.[14][15][16]. Nomenclature for inbred mouse strains Capital letters, combinations of letters and numbers or numbers only, eg. It should be noted 3.5 Hybrids. There is evidence that smaller contributions also may have come from Mus Parentheses may be used to show that an inbred, incipient congenic or congenic inbred strain may have a minor contribution from other than the defined host background and donor strain. Mouse Models With more than 20 breeding facilities around the world, Charles River is the leading global supplier of standard mouse models for biomedical research. Strain names can be abbreviated in publications after the first Otherwise, the strain abbreviation order may be by primary contributing strain or alphanumeric order. strain: [ strān ] 1. to overexercise. It may be designated using the symbols for the genetic mutations it carries in all still be appropriate to give them designations reflecting their parentage, similar to those for F1 hybrids. Laboratory rat strains derive from the Rattus norvegicus species. Research into cerebrovascular disease relies heavily on relies heavily on animal models, particularly rodent models, as experimental systems (Casals et al., 2011). Residual heterozygosity will essentially be eliminated by F60 (Bailey, 1978). mention of the full proper designation. It Reference to former published versions of the rules for mouse strain nomenclature can be found in Snell Another species, Many rodent strains have been developed for a variety of disease models, and they are also often used to test drug toxicity. housed and bred the strain or substrain. Collaborative Cross (CC) strains are multiparental recombinant inbred lines each with unique contributions from eight original progenitor strains: A/J, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, NOD/ShiLtJ, NZ)/HILtJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ. The three institutions responsible for the initial breeding, with their respective lab codes in parentheses, are: University of North Carolina, USA (Unc), Tel Aviv University, Israel (Tau), and Geniad, Australia (Geni). strain have been backcrossed onto C57BL/6J. 1996), Festing (1979, 1993), Staats (1986), Maltais et al. A key feature of mouse and rat nomenclature is the Laboratory Registration Code inbreeding generations is known, this can be shown by a question mark + the known number of Biniszkiewicz D, et al. Strains are also commonly referred to within virology, botany, and with rodents used in experimental studies. Strains are used in laboratory experiments. Definition of animals, outbred strains in the Definitions.net dictionary. The use of the donor strain symbol or Cg is essential to distinguish congenic from coisogenic strains. In this consomic rat strain, the Y chromosome from BN has been backcrossed onto SHR. 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